The Best Tech Tips

5 Ways to Spot a Phishing Email

Phishing attack explained 

The phishing attack is a common type of cyber attack. The attackers are attempting to make you take one of the next actions: 

  • Enter data. You could be guided to a fraudulent site. It is very similar to a well-known one and asks you to fill in data (passwords, usernames, emails, and bank information).
  • Download a file. The file could be a virus that can harm your device.

The message usually appears normal, and it could be tough to notice something is wrong. Typically, it includes something that the victim wants, such as free software or something they have to go, like changing a password in a certain amount of time. 

This strategy has been used for a long time. Also, the term “phish” points to the way we lure a fish with bait.

How to spot a phishing email?

It wants you to verify personal information. If the email looks authentic, but it requires from you data that you usually wouldn’t expect. That for sure is a sign that the email is from an untrusted source.

Keep an eye out for emails asking you to verify private information that you would never normally give. For example, it could be banking details or login information. Remember not to reply or click on any links. If you think that the email has a possibility to be genuine, first contact the company. Still, don’t use any method for communication given in the email. Instead, search online, and if you could make a telephone call.

The email address doesn’t seem genuine

Often a phishing email could arrive from an email address that looks reliable. Attackers do their best to trick their victims by using the names of legitimate companies inside the message or in the web address.

Just take a moment to examine the email address fully. You might see that it is a false variation designed to appear authentic.

Also, before clicking on any links, make sure to inspect them first.

Poor language

You can detect a phishing email by the poor writing used in the message. If there are spelling and grammatical mistakes and unusual twists of phrases, that is a secure sign. Legitimate companies make sure to send professionally written and checked adequately for mistakes emails. An unexpected email from an organization with mistakes is a sure indicator that is phishing.

Suspicious attachment

If a company sends you an email of the blue with an attachment, be aware it could be a malicious URL or a virus. The goal could be to infect your device or network.

The intention is to make you panic.

A common characteristic of phishing emails is to insert panic in the recipient. It could be a claim that your account is compromised, and the way to validate it is to enter personal information. Another case could be an urgency that if you don’t act immediately, your account will be deleted. Take a minute to think if this email is asking for something reasonable from you. 

How to protect yourself from phishing attacks?

Security improvement – Phishing occurs through emails. Apply MTA-STS, DMARC, DKIM, SPF. They are email authentication practices for recognizing and preventing messaging threats.

Anti-spam filters – Filtering is a great option for distinguishing undesired and infected emails and preventing them from arriving in inboxes.

Two-factor authentication (2FA) – The standard combination of username and password is not so reliable. So to stop spoofed accounts, attach one more level of security with 2FA. People will have to verify their individuality by a second attempt to receive access.

Virus detection and clearing – Effective antivirus software could keep your devices without threats. Still, understand that phishing can attack your employees as a method to get to your company’s sensitive data.

Web redirect record: How to use it?

Web redirect record explained.

The Web Redirect (WR) record is commonly used. It helps with redirecting every request for a particular URL to a different URL. A URL redirect or HTTP forward are other ways in which it can be called. However, in most regular cases, it is written as a WR record.

You are capable of using it and make a specific web page accessible on several URL addresses. 

Web redirects are divided into two different types :

  • 301 redirect. Its purpose is to show search engines and visitors the web page was permanently relocated and ensures they are transferred to the accurate page. It indicates that the content on that specific URL is moved for good. Visitors are redirected to the new page, which has completely replaced the previous one.
  • 302 redirect. It is a change only for a particular period of time. It redirects your visitors and the search engines to the established new page. However, it is only for a short amount of time. At some point, the redirect is going to be removed. 

When to use web redirect records?

Here are some cases when it is a good idea to use a web redirect record. 

  • Show URL changes to search engines – You can use it when a URL does not exist anymore, or you want to modify the position of a page. Establishing redirects 301 or 302 is a perfect choice. Search engines will be able to index the new location and forget about the previous one.
  • Redirect multiple to one domain name – Let’s say you have a hard-to-spell brand and domain name. Purchasing all of the potentials misspells and redirecting them to the accurate one is a great idea. So, even if your clients can’t memorize the precise spelling of your brand, they will still be able to find the right website.
  • Short URL – It is a great method to generate super short links. Usually, it is easier for your customers. When they are shorter, it is easier to remember them. Additionally, you can also apply them to your marketing campaign.
  • Forward client to a different domain – Perfect solution, in case one of your businesses is not reachable. Direct your clients to another domain and avoid losing them.

Web redirect record structure

It has a simple and easy to understand the structure:

  • Host: Here is the name of the host.
  • Type: In this case, it is WR
  • Point to: Here, you type the new URL address.
  • TTL: Usually, by default, it is 1 hour.

How to use it?

  1. First, open the panel for your DNS management. You can find it in your domain registrar. In the other case, if you have a service for managed DNS, it would be there.
  2. Proceed and open the DNS zone, in which you desire to set the web redirect.
  3. Define what the type of DNS record is. In this case, you should choose web redirect or URL redirect. There are different variations based on the provider you use.
  4. It would be best if you pointed to the host for your domain name.
  5. Next, you should set the location to which you want to redirect it. It could be a URL from the same website or another one.
  6. Decide if it is going to be permanent (301 redirect) or just for a period of time (302 redirect).
  7. Lastly, you should confirm that everything is set and you are ready!

Six Benefits Of IPv6

What is IPv6?

IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet protocol (IP). The purpose of Internet protocols is to set specific rules for the devices to send and receive information successfully. The exchange of information is between two hosts. So, for that reason, they have to be able to be identified. IP addresses come to help in this situation to track each host’s location. Finally, the two corresponding IP addresses are acknowledged, and the route is established for the entire data exchange.

An interesting fact is that IPv6 was officially introduced in 1995. That is more than twenty years! The massive growth of devices and the Internet’s gained popularity forced the need for the new IPv6. It was decided that IPv4 could not be able to provide the required amount of IP addresses. So, that is why IPv6 got developed. However, the transition to the newer version takes time. The majority of the devices, such as computers, smartphones, and the Internet of things (IoT), request a unique IP address to connect to the web daily. Let’s talk a little bit more about the benefits of IPv6!

Effective routing

With IPv6, the size of routing tables is reduced, and routing is a lot more effective. It lets ISPs aggregate the prefixes of their clients’ networks into an individual prefix and state this one prefix to the IPv6 Internet. Furthermore, in IPv6 networks, the fragmentation is managed by the source device and not by the router. That is possible by applying a protocol to identify the path’s maximum transmission unit (MTU).

Effective packet processing

The IPv6 has a more simple packet header that produces more efficient packet processing. Furthermore, in contrast with IPv4, IPv6 doesn’t include IP-level checksum, and the checksum is not recalculated at each router hop. Most link-layer technologies already have checksum and error-control abilities, because of that, eliminating the IP-level checksum was possible. Besides, the majority of transport layers that control end-to-end connectivity also hold checksum that lets error detection.

Directed data flow

The new IPv6 supports multicast, which allows bandwidth-intensive packet flows. They can be carried to various destinations simultaneously and save network bandwidth. Hosts that are not interested will no longer process broadcast packets. Moreover, the IPv6 header has a new field. It is called Flow Label, and it can recognize packets that belong to the related flow.

Simple network arrangement

IPv6 comes with a built-in auto-configuration for address assignment.

A router is going to send the prefix of the local link in its router advertisements. Therefore, a host can produce its personal IP address via adding its link-layer (MAC) address, transformed in Extended Universal Identifier (EUI) 64-bit arrangement, to the 64 bits of the local link prefix.

New services support

Actual end-to-end connectivity at the IP layer is reconstructed by excluding Network Address Translation (NAT). Additionally were enabled brand-new and helpful services. As a result, peer-to-peer networks are much easier to make and sustain, plus services like VoIP and Quality of Service (QoS) are getting more robust.

Security

IPv6 has a boost with IPSec. It offers authentication, confidentiality, and data integrity. However, IPv4 ICMP packets have the potential to transfer malware, so usually, they are blocked by corporate firewalls. Yet, the firewalls may permit ICMPv6, which is the new appliance of the Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6. The reason is IPSec is possible to be used to the packets of ICMPv6. 

5 Tips for Choosing the Best DNS Provider

Choosing the services your online business needs can be a little bit confusing. Even if you are an IT expert, checking among all the existing options and providers can be exhausting.

Not to get lost while navigating on the sea of options, here you have 5 tips for choosing the best DNS provider for your business.

Availability is a must. 

If your website can’t be reached, the risk of losing clients is big. A robust network with servers located all around the world for redundancy sounds ideal. The next step is to check that those locations are convenient for your business. Be sure those countries are your market or that they are close to it.

Uptime is a term that points to the effective operation time of a server, and therefore your website has. It’s a measurable factor absolutely linked with availability. Check the uptime records of the providers to see how much availability they really can guarantee. If you see constant outages in the service or downtime, it’s an alert not to hire the service. 

Availability is really key, and providers know it. DNS professionals establish the uptime they offer in the service level agreements (SLAs) as a guarantee for clients. 

Security.

DNS infrastructure faces dangerous risks. Plenty of cyber attacks keep occurring worldwide. As a result, an efficient strategy and technology for preventing, protecting clients’ websites, and guaranteeing their availability is a must.

A network with multiple points of presence distributed across the world, in addition to an efficient load balancing mechanism, DNS Failover, and anti-DDoS servers’ protection, are very helpful. Additional features like DNSSEC and two-factor authentication for the backend are a must. This can point the DNS provider will really handle traffic to avoid threats like the evil DDoS attacks. And even if a DNS server gets compromised, your website can keep safe and running due to the other servers included in the network. 

Performance. 

Check the capacity of the DNS provider have for resolving users’ queries worldwide. An Anycast network is a good beginning for you to consider a vendor seriously. Such a network will increase your domain’s availability and speed, reducing latency, bandwidth fee, and loading time. 

Customer support. 

DNS management is not a simple task. The smallest mistake while adding, editing, or deleting DNS records can affect your website performance or availability. Expert support is not a minor advantage. Be sure it’s included, available 24/7, that they speak your language or a common one, and try the contact ways they offer to see if they really work. DNS issues can really impact your profits. If an issue appears, you need to fix it fast and efficiently.

Look for competency and experience. 

There are many providers on the market, but there is a big difference between companies that offer DNS services as their main business and the ones that provide them as an add-on. Based on this, they can offer you a more robust or simpler infrastructure. 

DNS is an online media’s key component. A proper architecture, constant monitoring, and optimization are totally needed for supplying the best results. A competent network, modern equipment, and software can provide you fast resolution for your domain, 100% uptime, capacity for handling big volumes of queries per day, and more.

Conclusion.

DNS service will be the core of your website. Consider the previous parameters and your real business needs. Then, check the most suitable DNS service provider and price for your budget. Some DNS providers are globally recognized and expensive. But there are smaller DNS providers with good quality and lower prices.

5 of the biggest DDoS attacks in recent years

DDoS attacks are a constant problem that any business could suffer. 

They are massive controlled traffic that is directed to a target (server) with the goal of taking it out of order.

Directly or indirectly, one day, you will be affected. They are getting more frequent, and we can easily expect around 10 million attacks this year. Here, we have 5 of the biggest DDoS attacks in recent years. Those who really hit strong and disrupted businesses. 

2021 Gambling company and DDoS ransom attack

This year’s entry focuses on a particular strategy some cybercriminals love – a ransom attack! The attack was complex and lasted months. When it became critical was in March 2021, when the traffic reached 800+ Gbps. Akamai was the company that was in charge of defending the gambling company. It reported that the problem was in a network protocol called Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP). It led to a volumetric attack that bypassed the typical TCP and UDP traffic defenses. Still, Akamai managed to handle it.

2020 AWS DDoS attack

Amazon Web Services are getting attack constantly. What is interesting about this case from February 2020 is that the traffic was massive. At its peak, it reached an astonishing volume of 2.3 Tbps! Of course, AWS could swiftly mitigate the danger and handle the situation, but it was still an impressive attempt to bring AWS down and got a record for the strongest DDoS attack yet. The vulnerability that the hackers used was a part of the CLDAP (Connection-less Lightweight Directory Access Protocol). 

2019 Imperva SYN attack

During 2019, the company Imperva had two strong attacks to stop and save its clients. One was a DDoS SYN flood attack with 500 million packets per second (PPS) and the other with 580! It got the record for the largest application layer attack, so definitely a nasty attempt. The packets’ size was significant too. They range from 800 to 900 bytes each. 

2018 GitHub Memcached attack

The attack that brought down GitHub in 2018 was incredibly severe. The traffic was 1.35Tbps per second! Of course, GitHub protection was not strong enough, and after a while, it couldn’t respond anymore. The whole problem started thanks to the exploited communication port – 11211 UDP. The criminals use it to amplify the attack and send traffic, almost a hundred times the size of the original request. 

2017 Blizzard DDoS attack

The game company Blizzard also has its enemies. In 2017 their servers were under attack, and this time it was a very strong DDoS attack. Many gamers couldn’t connect to the servers and play some of their favorite games like World of Warcraft, Diablo, StarCraft, and more. It left them angry and without service for several hours. Since then, there have been more attacks, and Blizzard is still a big target. 

Conclusion

We are heaving a steady rise in the number of DDoS attacks. They also become more complex and stronger. We can see around a 10% increase each year, and we are already in the 10 million range. More news will come about new DDoS attacks, and new dark records will be made. It is inevitable. So, next time when you can’t send something through your messenger app or the email client does not work, it is probably another DDoS attack.

Domain parking: When to consider it?

The days of domain parking and earning from ads are long gone. This kind of easy profits is in the past, but do you still need domain parking services? 

What is domain parking?

Domain parking is an additional feature that many of the domain registrars offer that allows the users who purchase a domain name to have a simple 1-page message (HTML) that shows when you try to open the domain. You can have it without the need for web hosting. The purpose is to show a message to the visitors, that can be a contact, information about the future of the domain, or another. 

There are more reasons to use domain parking. These are the main cases when to consider domain parking. 

To sell domain names (domain flipping). 

One legit business that can’t function the same way without domain parking is reselling domain names for profit. You can register different domain names that have something in common – industry-related, similar names, particular keywords or keywords, etc. Thanks to the parking option, you can put your contacts. If somebody checks some of your domain names, you can show them your contacts and the price for the particular domain. This will facilitate the selling a lot. 

Domain parking before you finish your site. 

Consider domain parking when your site is still under construction. You can use it to put a few motivational sentences. To warm up the crowd. You can even change the message a few times from “coming soon” to “in two months”, “3 days left”, or another. If you already have a well-known brand and you are setting foot on a new market, the true fans could be ecstatic.

You moved to another domain. 

Maybe you have found a more suitable domain for your business, and you moved to it. It will be a shame to waste your previous domain name and all the people who know it. Extend your old domain name’s time by at least 1 year and park it. Use a message that clearly invites the visitors to go to the new domain name. 

Another reason is if the company merged with another one and now you are using just one site, but the trick with the parked domain works too. 

If you moved to another domain, a web redirect that directly takes the visitors from the previous domain to the new one might be a good option too. 

Get domains that you might use later.

Sometimes you are not sure about all the aspects of your business’s future development. Maybe in some years, you want to start selling on the nearby markets (countries). Perhaps you want to create a separate domain for your flagship product. We can’t know everything. But it is very cheap to get the domains in advance and sit on them. Put a message that leads to the main site and be prepared for the future. Who knows, maybe in 1 or 2 years, you will need one of these parked domains, and you already have it for the price of a few dollars per year. 

Conclusion

So, now you know when to consider domain parking. It is a simple option that you can activate in a matter of minutes. It can show a simple message and still serve your goals. It saves money on web hosting. 

5 Most popular TLDs for April 2021 according to Statista

Do you want to know which are the 5 most popular TLDs for April 2021? There is a constant battle between the hundreds of newly created generic top-level domains and all the old ones that came decades ago. But, do the old ones still standing their ground, or were they already swept away by the newcomers? Here we have data from Statista with TLD popularity ranking and their market share expressed in percentage.

5. .ir TLD 1.9%

In the fifth place in our ranking is the country code top-level domain .ir, which stands for Iran. What is great about this TLD is that people from outside of Iran can register .ir domain too. Both in English and Persian. The registry website is nic.ir. This domain extension has seen growth in the last months, so that it might climb even higher in the future.

Top sites with .ir include: Shaparak.ir, Time.ir, Divar.ir, Tamin.ir, Frasnews.ir.

4. .net TLD 3.3%

On one step higher, we can find one of the old-favorite TLD – .net. Net stands for network, and it has been around for more than 30 years. Initially, it was used by network providers, but currently, there are no restrictions. Unfortunately, although it is well-known, it has been declining for a long time.

Top sites with .net include: Slideshare.net, Csdn.net, Speedtest.net, Behance.net, Savefrom.net.

3. .org TLD 4.4%

.org stands for organization, is another top-level domain that has been around for a long time. All kinds of organizations used it, both non-profit and for-profit ones. It is as old as the .net, and it has the same fate as it. It is slowly declining. Still, it has a significant market share, and people recognize it from the many internationally famous sites it has under its domain.

Top sites with .org include: Wikipedia.org, Telegram.org, Craiglist.org, Archive.org, Mozilla.org.

2. .ru TLD 5.9%

.ru is a ccTLD of the Russian Federation. The current registry website for it is cctld.ru. In which you can find information both in English and Russian. .ru Could be a good option if you are interested in the Russian market. The .ru offers DNSSEC for creating a chain of trust and verify DNS records of the domains. It has been on a decline since the last year, but it still has a good market share.

Top sites with .ru include: Yandex.ru, Mail.ru, Ok.ru, Aliexpress.ru, Gosuslugi.ru.

1. .com TLD 52.3%

Are you surprised? Of course, the .com TLD is still number 1! It is dominating the market since forever. .com stands for commercial, and it was intended as an extension for all the private companies who what to be on the web. The domain is so strong that it is again on the rise in the last year. Its market position is entirely dominant, and it will most probably continue to be the first on ever most popular TLDs list out there for decades.

Top sites with .com include: Google.com, Amazon.com, Facebook.com, Youtube.com, Baidu.com

.com is still the king, but there are a few more TLDs that soon can be a part of the 5 most popular TLDs – .in (1.8%), .uk(1.6%), .au (1.6%), .ua (1.3%), .de (1.2%). The country code domains are strong. They are a great way to show which is your market and be closer to the consumer, so each of these 5 can soon climb up.

6 steps for building a successful website

Websites have multiplied by millions on the Internet. As a result, a wide variety of products and services have found market and success! And no matter the competition is really hard. Still, there are chances for new websites to succeed.

If you have a great business idea and want to try it, check these 6 steps for building a successful website.

1. Create your business plan.

Have you heard that a goal without a plan is just a wish? That’s the truth. Define a clear strategy for building, running, and growing your business website.

  • Establish your target market. 
  • Define goals and control methods. 
  • Plan your resources and define your products/services and portfolio. 
  • Analyze your environment and competitors. What are they doing, good and bad? How are you going to differentiate from them? 
  • Think about cash flows and financial problems you could face. 

A well-defined business plan is key to convince investors to be part of your business. 

2. Register your domain name, and get a TLS certificate.

  • Define a catchy and memorable domain name. Prefer something short than too long for typing. 
  • Before registering, you must check its availability. There are different domain name search tools you can use. 
  • Choose the best TLD (top-level domain) for your website. The one that provides more information about its purpose, product or service, location, scope (local or international). Some TLDs are more popular than others (.com, .org, .net, .uk, .ru, etc.), and based on that, their prices differ.
  • Look for a reliable registrar. 
  • Get a TLS certificate from your registrar or from your web hosting provider. It protects users and authenticates your website identity for them to know they will interact with a legit website. 

3. Pick a web hosting server.

You need a provider for hosting your website (all the files that shape it: database, theme, code, images, etc.) on a server connected to the Internet. It’s the way to make it available online for users. There are different types: shared hosting, virtual private server, dedicated server, etc. Prices, resources, security, etc., vary. The way to pick the more suitable for you is to identify very well your website’s needs.

Providers offer plans that include different functions and costs. Buy what you need to reach the specific goals you have, and check the conditions for future scalability. 

4. Choose content manager system (CMS).

What kind of website do you want? Is it a blog or an e-shop? What kind of functionality do you require for interacting with users? What is the best way to deliver the content?

  • Look for ease of use. 
  • Customization possibilities both for landing pages but also for the backend. 
  • Technical architecture, possibilities for adding third-party software (SEO, security, user management, etc.).

5. Develop your SEO strategy.

An SEO strategy will provide the guidelines for developing your content. You also will clarify the best way to organize it. Content and the objectives you want to reach with it must guide your design decisions. What should get more users’ attention? How to support the call to action visually? The SEO strategy is also important for being well ranked by search engines.

6. Execute your marketing plan.

Of course, the marketing plan must be developed before, just like the SEO one. But once you are ready to launch the website, it must be fully executed. People, your target market, must be aware of its existence. Competition online is hard. Competitors are many. So, you must attract people’s attention and generate traffic.

Conclusion.

Building a successful website is possible! It demands permanent work and optimization. Don’t waste time! Start your plan (step 1) now!

Most frequently used DNS commands.

These DNS commands are the most commonly used when we are talking about DNS troubleshooting. This is because they are easy to use and can provide you information about your DNS records and how your network is operating. It doesn’t matter if you are a Linux, Windows, or macOS user. You have multiple commands included in your OS. So let’s see which are the most frequently practiced DNS commands and how you can use them.

NSLookup command

The NSLookup command is one of the frequently used DNS diagnostic commands. The beneficial thing about it is that it is present on all of the popular operating systems (OS). With it, you are able to see all kinds of DNS records. Also, it includes various options.

Use the NSLookup to see all the available DNS records. In the command line, write: 

$ nslookup -type=any domain.com

It is going to show you all of the available DNS records for the particular domain. If you want to see a specific DNS record, change the type to NS, A, AAAA, MX, SOA, etc. After the DNS type, you can put another domain name or IP address.

Dig command

Dig command is already built-in on macOS. For Linux and Windows, you can easily install the command. It is a very useful DNS diagnostic tool. This command can show you all types of DNS records. Also, you can probe your nameservers, traceroute both IPv4 and IPv6, or check a specific port. Troubleshooting with the Dig command is quick and simple. 

If you want to see all the available information about a domain, in the command line, write:

$ dig domain.com any 

You can simply replace the domain name with another one or an IP address. The Dig command is excellent because it provides complete information about the query you requested. If you want to receive a more specific result, you can use the many options that the Dig command has.

Host command

The functionality of the Host commands is very similar to the Dig command. So, with it, you can also see the available DNS records and apply it for DNS troubleshooting. Also, check an IP address or domain name, perform reverse lookup or see the domain’s nameservers or modify the DNS queries with several options. On Linux, the Host command is also built-in, like the Dig command. So, you are free to choose which one you want to use.

If you want to see all the available information about a domain, in the command line, write:

$ host -a example.com

Google Admin Toolbox Dig

An excellent solution for DNS troubleshooting is also an online tool. For example, there is an online version of the Dig command from Google. You can easily check various types of records, such as A, AAAA, MX, CNAME, PTR, etc. There you can perform DNS lookup by only inserting a domain name you wish to view.

Conclusion.

Use the suggested tools whenever you want to. For sure, they are capable of providing you the information you need.

Fundamental DNS records you should know.

DNS records explained.

DNS records set specific rules in a DNS zone. They are entirely made of text, which makes them very light. Zone files are the place where the various types of DNS records are stored.

Every time when a user makes a request, the DNS servers are searching for a particular DNS record type. As a result, there are many different records for the various kinds of requests that could be made. So, let’s make things a little bit more precise and explain some of the most fundamental DNS records.

A record

When we are talking about DNS, the first record that we should mention is the A record. Its purpose is very important and is at the foundation of DNS. The A record points a domain name/hostname to the corresponding IP address. So, for example, when a user makes a request to visit a website, it would typically type the website’s domain name. However, to find it, the user needs its IP address. To get it, the browser will search from one DNS server to another. So, in the end, it will receive the A record capable of resolving the query. The browser will know where exactly the website is and is going to load it.

SOA record

SOA stands for the start of authority record. Its purpose is to show the primary DNS server – the authoritative name server. This record also holds essential information for the DNS zone, also for the normal functionality of the DNS network, it is a necessity. Within the data inside can be found, also who is the administrator responsible for it, how frequently the DNS server has to refresh, and more.

MX record

This record is also known as the mail eXchanger record. The purpose of it is also very important, especially when you want to have accurate email correspondence. It displays the server or servers accountable for receiving emails for the domain. In case you don’t have such a DNS record, the email correspondence is going to be challenging. The sending servers won’t know to who they should send messages. As a result, you are not going to receive emails. 

PTR record

Domain owners sometimes neglect this DNS record, but for sending emails without any problems is a necessity. The PTR record is also known as a pointer record. Its purpose is the opposite of the A record, and it is required for Reverse DNS. The main function is to point an IP address to a domain name. Its common use is for sending emails. The receivers need to verify that the email was sent from the actual domain, not from somebody else. If the A and PTR records are not configured correctly, your emails will end in the spam folder. Also, it is able to operate with both IPv4 addresses and with IPv6 addresses. 

CNAME record

The CNAME record is showing which is the actual, canonical domain name for the domain/subdomain you want to visit. This DNS record is essential to know when we are speaking for subdomains. Creating a CNAME for each of them and pointing them to the domain name makes administrating more simple. You don’t have to modify any further DNS records for every subdomain. For example, if you make changes, for example.com, there is no need to update these changes for subdomain.example.com. For you, DNS management will be much easier.